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  1. In holometabolous insects, environmental factors experienced in pre-imaginal life stages affect the life-history traits within that stage and can also influence subsequent life stages. Here, I assessed toleran...

    Authors: Steve B. S. Baleba

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:78

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. In temperate regions many small mammals including bats hibernate during winter. During hibernation these small mammals occasionally wake up (arouse) to restore electrolyte and water balance. However, field dat...

    Authors: Heungjin Ryu, Kodzue Kinoshita, Sungbae Joo and Sun-Sook Kim

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:77

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. There has been a rapid increase in the brain size relative to body size during mammalian evolutionary history. In particular, the enlarged and globular brain is the most distinctive anatomical feature of moder...

    Authors: Nashaiman Pervaiz, Hongen Kang, Yiming Bao and Amir Ali Abbasi

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  4. Despite progress in genomic analysis of spiders, their chromosome evolution is not satisfactorily understood. Most information on spider chromosomes concerns the most diversified clade, entelegyne araneomorphs...

    Authors: Ivalú M. Ávila Herrera, Jiří Král, Markéta Pastuchová, Martin Forman, Jana Musilová, Tereza Kořínková, František Šťáhlavský, Magda Zrzavá, Petr Nguyen, Pavel Just, Charles R. Haddad, Matyáš Hiřman, Martina Koubová, David Sadílek and Bernhard A. Huber

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:75

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:93

  5. During recognition process, multiple parameters of the encountered stimulus may play a role. Previous studies with wild birds identified the importance of several salient features (e.g., eyes, beak, prominent ...

    Authors: Kateřina Antonová, Petr Veselý and Roman Fuchs

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:74

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Refaunation/rewilding by large ungulates represents a cost-efficient approach to managing natural biotopes and may be particularly useful for areas whose biodiversity depends on disturbance dynamics and is imp...

    Authors: Martin Konvička, David Ričl, Veronika Vodičková, Jiří Beneš and Miloslav Jirků

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  7. Although almost all extant spider species live in terrestrial environments, a few species live fully submerged in freshwater or seawater. The intertidal spiders (genus Desis) built silk nests within coral crevice...

    Authors: Fan Li, Yunyun Lv, Zhengyong Wen, Chao Bian, Xinhui Zhang, Shengtao Guo, Qiong Shi and Daiqin Li

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:72

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  8. Cultivated tea is one of the most important economic and ecological trees distributed worldwide. Cultivated tea suffer from long-term targeted selection of traits and overexploitation of habitats by human bein...

    Authors: Jiao Peng, Yunlin Zhao, Meng Dong, Shiquan Liu, Zhiyuan Hu, Xiaofen Zhong and Zhenggang Xu

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:71

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The common name of the Flesh flies (Sarcophagidae) usually relates them with organisms feeding on decomposing organic matter, although the biology of one of the largest radiations among insects also includes ...

    Authors: Eliana Buenaventura

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:70

    Content type: Research

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  10. Although the immediate consequences of biological invasions on ecosystems and conservation have been widely studied, the long-term effects remain unclear. Invaders can either cause the extinction of native spe...

    Authors: Carlos García, Josefina G. Campoy and Rubén Retuerto

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:69

    Content type: Research article

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  11. New Zealand’s diplodactylid geckos exhibit high species-level diversity, largely independent of discernible osteological changes. Consequently, systematic affinities of isolated skeletal elements (fossils) are...

    Authors: Lachie Scarsbrook, Emma Sherratt, Rodney A. Hitchmough and Nicolas J. Rawlence

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:67

    Content type: Research

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  12. Color vision and phototactic behavior based on opsins are important for the fitness of insects because of their roles in foraging and mate choice. Related topics, including the duplication and loss of opsin ge...

    Authors: Pengjun Xu, Bin Lu, Jiangtao Chao, Robert Holdbrook, Gemei Liang and Yanhui Lu

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:66

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The Type I interferon response is an important first-line defense against viruses. In turn, viruses antagonize (i.e., degrade, mis-localize, etc.) many proteins in interferon pathways. Thus, hosts and viruses ...

    Authors: Elena N. Judd, Alison R. Gilchrist, Nicholas R. Meyerson and Sara L. Sawyer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:65

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Geographic differences in floral size sometimes reflect geographic differences in pollinator size. However, we know little about whether this floral size specialization to the regional pollinator size occurred...

    Authors: Tsubasa Toji, Natsumi Ishimoto, Shin Egawa, Yuta Nakase, Mitsuru Hattori and Takao Itino

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:64

    Content type: Research

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  15. Identifying ecologically significant phenotypic traits and the genomic mechanisms that underly them are crucial steps in understanding traits associated with population divergence. We used genome-wide data to ...

    Authors: Jared A. Grummer, Michael C. Whitlock, Patricia M. Schulte and Eric B. Taylor

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:63

    Content type: Research

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  16. Pathogens are key components in natural and agricultural plant systems. There is evidence of evolutionary changes in disease susceptibility as a consequence of climate change, but we know little about the unde...

    Authors: Niamh B. O’Hara, Steven J. Franks, Nolan C. Kane, Silas Tittes and Joshua S. Rest

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:61

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Lemurs once rivalled the diversity of rest of the primate order despite thier confinement to the island of Madagascar. We test the adaptive radiation model of Malagasy lemur diversity using a novel combinatio...

    Authors: Ethan L. Fulwood, Shan Shan, Julia M. Winchester, Henry Kirveslahti, Robert Ravier, Shahar Kovalsky, Ingrid Daubechies and Doug M. Boyer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:60

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The duplication of genes is one of the main genetic mechanisms that led to the gain in complexity of biological tissue. Although the implication of duplicated gene expression in brain evolution was extensively...

    Authors: Solène Brohard-Julien, Vincent Frouin, Vincent Meyer, Smahane Chalabi, Jean-François Deleuze, Edith Le Floch and Christophe Battail

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:59

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Pelvic brooding is a form of uni-parental care, and likely evolved in parallel in two lineages of Sulawesi ricefishes. Contrary to all other ricefishes, females of pelvic brooding species do not deposit eggs a...

    Authors: Tobias Spanke, Leon Hilgers, Benjamin Wipfler, Jana M. Flury, Arne W. Nolte, Ilham V. Utama, Bernhard Misof, Fabian Herder and Julia Schwarzer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:57

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Climate heterogeneity not only indirectly shapes the genetic structures of plant populations, but also drives adaptive divergence by impacting demographic dynamics. The variable localized climates and topograp...

    Authors: Hang Ye, Zhi Wang, Huimin Hou, Jiahui Wu, Yue Gao, Wei Han, Wenming Ru, Genlou Sun and Yiling Wang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:56

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Why females engage in social polygyny remains an unresolved question in species where the resources provided by males maximize female fitness. In these systems, the ability of males to access several females, ...

    Authors: David Canal, Lotte Schlicht, Simone Santoro, Carlos Camacho, Jesús Martínez-Padilla and Jaime Potti

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:55

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Placentation has evolved multiple times among both chordates and invertebrates. Although they are structurally less complex, invertebrate placentae are much more diverse in their origin, development and positi...

    Authors: U. A. Nekliudova, T. F. Schwaha, O. N. Kotenko, D. Gruber, N. Cyran and A. N. Ostrovsky

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:54

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Avidins are biotin-binding proteins commonly found in the vertebrate eggs. In addition to streptavidin from Streptomyces avidinii, a growing number of avidins have been characterized from divergent bacterial spec...

    Authors: Olli H. Laitinen, Tanja P. Kuusela, Sampo Kukkurainen, Anssi Nurminen, Aki Sinkkonen and Vesa P. Hytönen

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:53

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Asexually reproducing populations of single cells evolve through mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Environmental conditions in which the evolution takes place define the emergent fitness landscap...

    Authors: Bhaskar Kumawat and Ramray Bhat

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The New Guinean archipelago has been shaped by millions of years of plate tectonic activity combined with long-term fluctuations in climate and sea level. These processes combined with New Guinea’s location at...

    Authors: Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Lloyd T. White, Helena Shaverdo, Athena Lam, Suriani Surbakti, Rawati Panjaitan, Bob Sumoked, Thomas von Rintelen, Katayo Sagata and Michael Balke

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Comparative phylogeographic studies on rainforest species that are widespread in Central Africa often reveal genetic discontinuities within and between biogeographic regions, indicating (historical) barriers t...

    Authors: Samuel Vanden Abeele, Steven B. Janssens, Rosalía Piñeiro and Olivier J. Hardy

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Identifying factors shaping population genetic structure across continuous landscapes in the context of biogeographic boundaries for lineage diversification has been a challenging goal. The red muntjacs cover ...

    Authors: Bhim Singh, Ajit Kumar, Virendra Prasad Uniyal and Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:49

    Content type: Research article

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  28. A striking aspect of evolution is that it often converges on similar trajectories. Evolutionary convergence can occur in deep time or over short time scales, and is associated with the imposition of similar se...

    Authors: Cory A. Berger, Michael S. Brewer, Nobuaki Kono, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Kazuharu Arakawa, Susan R. Kennedy, Hannah M. Wood, Seira A. Adams and Rosemary G. Gillespie

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:48

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Sexual dimorphism is widespread in insects. The certain specialized structures may be used as weapons in male–male combats or as ornaments to enhance mating opportunities.

    Authors: Yan-jie Zhang, Peter J. M. Shih, Jun-you Wang, Maria E. McNamara, Chungkun Shih, Dong Ren and Tai-ping Gao

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:47

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Nbp35-like proteins (Nbp35, Cfd1, HCF101, Ind1, and AbpC) are P-loop NTPases that serve as components of iron-sulfur cluster (FeS) assembly machineries. In eukaryotes, Ind1 is present in mitochondria, and its ...

    Authors: Jan Pyrih, Vojtěch Žárský, Justin D. Fellows, Christopher Grosche, Dorota Wloga, Boris Striepen, Uwe G. Maier and Jan Tachezy

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:46

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Natural model systems are indispensable for exploring adaptations in response to environmental pressures. Sinocyclocheilus of China, the most diverse cavefish clade in the world (75 species), provide unique oppor...

    Authors: Ting-Ru Mao, Ye-Wei Liu, Madhava Meegaskumbura, Jian Yang, Gajaba Ellepola, Gayani Senevirathne, Cheng-Hai Fu, Joshua B. Gross and Marcio R. Pie

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:45

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) is a viviparous teleost. We proposed that the rockfish ovarian wall had a similar function to the uterus of mammals previously. In the present study, the well-developed vascul...

    Authors: Jingjing Niu, Weihao Song, Rui Li, Haiyang Yu, Jian Guan, Jie Qi and Yan He

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:44

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Phylogenomic approaches have great power to reconstruct evolutionary histories, however they rely on multi-step processes in which each stage has the potential to affect the accuracy of the final result. Many ...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Spillane, Troy M. LaPolice, Matthew D. MacManes and David C. Plachetzki

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:43

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. The bearded vulture is sparsely distributed across a wide geographic range that extends over three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia). Restriction to high-altitude mountainous habitats, low breeding rates, l...

    Authors: Melanie Streicher, Sonja Krüger, Franziska Loercher and Sandi Willows-Munro

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:42

    Content type: Research article

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  35. It has been proposed that divergence in the gut microbiota composition between incipient species could contribute to their reproductive isolation. Nevertheless, empirical evidence for the role of gut microbiot...

    Authors: Camille Sottas, Lucie Schmiedová, Jakub Kreisinger, Tomáš Albrecht, Jiří Reif, Tomasz S. Osiejuk and Radka Reifová

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:41

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Cherleria (Caryophyllaceae) is a circumboreal genus that also occurs in the high mountains of the northern hemisphere. In this study, we focus on a clade that diversified in the European High Mountains, which was...

    Authors: Abigail J. Moore, Jennifer A. Messick and Joachim W. Kadereit

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:40

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Recovering the historical patterns of selection acting on a protein coding sequence is a major goal of evolutionary biology. Mutation-selection models address this problem by explicitly modelling fixation rate...

    Authors: Andrew M. Ritchie, Tristan L. Stark and David A. Liberles

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:39

    Content type: Methodology article

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  38. The circadian clock is a biological timing system that improves the ability of organisms to deal with environmental fluctuations. At the molecular level it consists of a network of transcription-translation fe...

    Authors: João M. Moreno, Tiago F. Jesus, Maria M. Coelho and Vitor C. Sousa

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:38

    Content type: Research article

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  39. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: D. A. H. Peach, C. Carroll, S. Meraj, S. Gomes, E. Galloway, A. Balcita, H. Coatsworth, N. Young, Y. Uriel, R. Gries, C. Lowenberger, M. Moore and G. Gries

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:37

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:29

  40. Hemocyanin is the oxygen transporter of most molluscs. Since the oxygen affinity of hemocyanin is strongly temperature-dependent, this essential protein needs to be well-adapted to the environment. In Tectiple...

    Authors: Gabriela Giannina Schäfer, Veronika Pedrini-Martha, Daniel John Jackson, Reinhard Dallinger and Bernhard Lieb

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:36

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Lake Tanganyika belongs to the East African Great Lakes and is well known for harbouring a high proportion of endemic and morphologically distinct genera, in cichlids but also in paludomid gastropods. With abo...

    Authors: Wencke Krings, Marco T. Neiber, Alexander Kovalev, Stanislav N. Gorb and Matthias Glaubrecht

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:35

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Thamnophilidae birds are the result of a monophyletic radiation of insectivorous Passeriformes. They are a diverse group of 225 species and 45 genera and occur in lowlands and lower montane forests of Neotropi...

    Authors: Talita Fernanda Augusto Ribas, Julio Cesar Pieczarka, Darren K. Griffin, Lucas G. Kiazim, Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi, Patricia Caroline Mary O´Brien, Malcolm Andrew Ferguson-Smith, Fengtang Yang, Alexandre Aleixo and Rebecca E. O’Connor

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:34

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBPs) constitute a common gene family found among animals, plants and microbes. Plant PEBP proteins play an important role in regulating flowering time, plant archit...

    Authors: Man Zhang, Ping Li, Xiaolan Yan, Jia Wang, Tangren Cheng and Qixiang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:32

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Co-infection of endosymbionts in the same host is ubiquitous, and the interactions of the most common symbiont Wolbachia with other symbionts, including Spiroplasma, in invertebrate organisms have received increa...

    Authors: Huifang Guo, Na Wang, Hongtao Niu, Dongxiao Zhao and Zhichun Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:31

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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