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  1. Sharks and rays are some of the most threatened marine taxa due to the high levels of bycatch and significant demand for meat and fin-related products in many Asian communities. At least 25% of shark and ray s...

    Authors: Yin Cheong Aden Ip, Jia Jin Marc Chang, Kelvin K. P. Lim, Zeehan Jaafar, Benjamin J. Wainwright and Danwei Huang
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:166
  2. Many male animals donate nutritive materials during courtship or mating to their female mates. Donation of large-sized gifts, though costly to prepare, can result in increased sperm transfer during mating and ...

    Authors: Yoshitaka Kamimura, Kazunori Yoshizawa, Charles Lienhard, Rodrigo L. Ferreira and Jun Abe
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:164
  3. For specialised pollinators, the synchrony of plant and pollinator life history is critical to the persistence of pollinator populations. This is even more critical in nursery pollination, where pollinators ar...

    Authors: Jonathan T. D. Finch, Sally A. Power, Justin A. Welbergen and James M. Cook
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:161
  4. The ancestral presence of epithelia in Metazoa is no longer debated. Porifera seem to be one of the best candidates to be the sister group to all other Metazoa. This makes them a key taxon to explore cell-adhe...

    Authors: Amélie Vernale, Maria Mandela Prünster, Fabio Marchianò, Henry Debost, Nicolas Brouilly, Caroline Rocher, Dominique Massey-Harroche, Emmanuelle Renard, André Le Bivic, Bianca H. Habermann and Carole Borchiellini
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:160
  5. The inaugural BMC Ecology and Evolution image competition attracted entries from talented ecologists and evolutionary biologists worldwide. Together, these photos beautifully capture biodiversity, how it arose an...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Harman, Alison L. Cuff, Josef Settele, Luke M. Jacobus, David A. Liberles and Arne Traulsen
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:157

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:174

  6. The vast variation observed in genital morphology is a longstanding puzzle in evolutionary biology. Studies showing that the morphology of the mammalian baculum (penis bone) can covary with a male’s paternity ...

    Authors: Lennart Winkler, Anna K. Lindholm, Steven A. Ramm and Andreas Sutter
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:159
  7. Synthetic gene drive technologies aim to spread transgenic constructs into wild populations even when they impose organismal fitness disadvantages. The extraordinary diversity of plausible drive mechanisms and...

    Authors: Prateek Verma, R. Guy Reeves and Chaitanya S. Gokhale
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:156

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:195

  8. Conserved syntenic gene complexes are rare in Arthropods and likely only retained due to functional constraint. Numerous sHSPs have been identified in the genomes of insects, some of which are located clustere...

    Authors: Megan Leask, Mackenzie Lovegrove, Abigail Walker, Elizabeth Duncan and Peter Dearden
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:154
  9. Different types of proteins diverge at vastly different rates. Moreover, the same type of protein has been observed to evolve with different rates in different phylogenetic lineages. In the present study we me...

    Authors: Raf Huttener, Lieven Thorrez, Thomas in‘t Veld, Barney Potter, Guy Baele, Mikaela Granvik, Leentje Van Lommel and Frans Schuit
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:153
  10. In recent years, the average abundance function has attracted much attention as it reflects the degree of cooperation in the population. Then it is significant to analyse how average abundance functions can be...

    Authors: Ke Xia
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:152
  11. Crypsis by background-matching is a critical form of anti-predator defence for animals exposed to visual predators, but achieving effective camouflage in patchy and variable natural environments is not straigh...

    Authors: Emmanuelle Sophie Briolat, Lina María Arenas, Anna E. Hughes, Eric Liggins and Martin Stevens
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:151
  12. Understanding drivers of animal biodiversity has been a longstanding aim in evolutionary biology. Insects and fishes represent the largest lineages of invertebrates and vertebrates respectively, and consequent...

    Authors: Kevin Arbuckle and Richard J. Harris
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:150
  13. Environmental conditions on Earth are repeated in non-random patterns that often coincide with species from different regions and time periods having consistent combinations of morphological, physiological and...

    Authors: Nicolás Pelegrin, Kirk O. Winemiller, Laurie J. Vitt, Daniel B. Fitzgerald and Eric R. Pianka
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:149
  14. hes genes are chordate homologs of Drosophila genes, hairy and enhancer of split, which encode a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional repressor with a WRPW motif. Various developmental functions of hes g...

    Authors: Aya Kuretani, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Masanori Taira and Tatsuo Michiue
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:147
  15. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Malte Petersen, David Armisén, Richard A. Gibbs, Lars Hering, Abderrahman Khila, Georg Mayer, Stephen Richards, Oliver Niehuis and Bernhard Misof
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:146

    The original article was published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2019 19:11

  16. Climate change models predict changes in the amount, frequency and seasonality of precipitation events, all of which have the potential to affect the structure and function of grassland ecosystems. While previ...

    Authors: Kirk L. Barnett, Scott N. Johnson, Sarah L. Facey, Eleanor V. J. Gibson-Forty, Raul Ochoa-Hueso and Sally A. Power
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:145
  17. The earliest Miocene (Aquitanian) represents a crucial time interval in the evolution of European squamates (i.e., lizards and snakes), witnessing a high diversity of taxa, including an array of extinct forms ...

    Authors: Georgios L. Georgalis and Torsten M. Scheyer
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:144
  18. In species showing partial migration, as is the case for many salmonid fishes, it is important to assess how anthropogenic pressure experienced by migrating individuals affects the total population. We focused...

    Authors: Eloïse Duval, Øystein Skaala, María Quintela, Geir Dahle, Aurélien Delaval, Vidar Wennevik, Kevin A. Glover and Michael M. Hansen
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:143
  19. Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are involved in many physiological functions of plant growth and development. Although an increasing number of MATE proteins have been identified, the un...

    Authors: Zhixuan Du, Qitao Su, Zheng Wu, Zhou Huang, Jianzhong Bao, Jianbin Li, Hang Tu, Chuihai Zeng, Junru Fu and Haohua He
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:141
  20. When males are selective, they can either reject low-quality females or adjust their reproductive investment in response to traits that indicate female quality (e.g., body size or condition). According to the dif...

    Authors: Diego Solano-Brenes, Luiz Ernesto Costa-Schmidt, Maria Jose Albo and Glauco Machado
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:140
  21. The most severe form of human malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This unicellular organism is a member of a subgenus of Plasmodium called the Laverania that infects apes, with P. f...

    Authors: Mackensie R. Gross, Rosie Hsu and Kirk W. Deitsch
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:139
  22. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the main causes of viral hepatitis and liver cancer. HBV integration is one of the key steps in the virus-promoted malignant transformation.

    Authors: Canbiao Wu, Xiaofang Guo, Mengyuan Li, Jingxian Shen, Xiayu Fu, Qingyu Xie, Zeliang Hou, Manman Zhai, Xiaofan Qiu, Zifeng Cui, Hongxian Xie, Pengmin Qin, Xuchu Weng, Zheng Hu and Jiuxing Liang
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:138
  23. Understanding how island ecosystems change across habitats is a major challenge in ecological conservation under the conditions of habitat degradation. According to a 2-year investigation on Dong Island of the...

    Authors: Yingcan Li, Zhiwen Chen, Chao Peng, Guangchuan Huang, Hongyu Niu and Hongmao Zhang
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:137
  24. Placodontia is a Triassic sauropterygian reptile group characterized by flat and enlarged crushing teeth adapted to a durophagous diet. The enigmatic placodont Henodus chelyops has numerous autapomorphic characte...

    Authors: Yannick Pommery, Torsten M. Scheyer, James M. Neenan, Tobias Reich, Vincent Fernandez, Dennis F. A. E. Voeten, Adrian S. Losko and Ingmar Werneburg
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:136
  25. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, one of the major causes of worldwide amphibian biodiversity loss. Many amphibians exhibit skin-based chemical defences, which may pl...

    Authors: János Ujszegi, Krisztina Ludányi, Ágnes M. Móricz, Dániel Krüzselyi, László Drahos, Tamás Drexler, Márk Z. Németh, Judit Vörös, Trenton W. J. Garner and Attila Hettyey
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:135
  26. Four ohnologous genes (sox1, sox2, sox3, and sox15) were generated by two rounds of whole-genome duplication in a vertebrate ancestor. In eutherian mammals, Sox1, Sox2, and Sox3 participate in central nervous sys...

    Authors: Yusaku Ogita, Kei Tamura, Shuuji Mawaribuchi, Nobuhiko Takamatsu and Michihiko Ito
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:134
  27. Callitrichids comprise a diverse group of platyrrhine monkeys that are present across South and Central America. Their secondarily evolved small size and pointed claws allow them to cling to vertical trunks of...

    Authors: Léo Botton-Divet and John A. Nyakatura
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:132
  28. ApaH like phosphatases (ALPHs) originate from the bacterial ApaH protein and have been identified in all eukaryotic super-groups. Only two of these proteins have been functionally characterised. We have shown ...

    Authors: Paula Andrea Castañeda Londoño, Nicole Banholzer, Bridget Bannermann and Susanne Kramer
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:131
  29. The orogeny of the eastern Mediterranean region has substantially affected ecological speciation patterns, particularly of mountain-dwelling species. Mountain vipers of the genus Montivipera are among the paramou...

    Authors: Mohsen Ahmadi, Mahmoud-Reza Hemami, Mohammad Kaboli, Masoud Nazarizadeh, Mansoureh Malekian, Roozbeh Behrooz, Philippe Geniez, John Alroy and Niklaus E. Zimmermann
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:130
  30. Two coexisting species with similar ecological requirements avoid or reduce competition by changing the extent of their use of a given resource. Numerous coexistence mechanisms have been proposed, but species ...

    Authors: Elisa Torretta, Luca Riboldi, Elena Costa, Claudio Delfoco, Erica Frignani and Alberto Meriggi
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:129
  31. In the marine realm, dispersal ability is among the major factors shaping the distribution of species. In the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, the Azores Archipelago is home to a multitude of marine invertebrates whi...

    Authors: L. Baptista, H. Meimberg, S. P. Ávila, A. M. Santos and M. Curto
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:128
  32. The Chengjiang biota from southwest China (518-million-years old, early Cambrian) has yielded nearly 300 species, of which more than 80 species represent early chelicerates, crustaceans and relatives. The appl...

    Authors: Michel Schmidt, Yu Liu, Xianguang Hou, Joachim T. Haug, Carolin Haug, Huijan Mai and Roland R. Melzer
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:127
  33. Populations living in fragmented habitats may suffer from loss of genetic variation and reduced between-patch dispersal, which are processes that can result in genetic differentiation. This occurs frequently i...

    Authors: Nelli Rönkä, Veli-Matti Pakanen, Angela Pauliny, Robert L. Thomson, Kimmo Nuotio, Hannes Pehlak, Ole Thorup, Petteri Lehikoinen, Antti Rönkä, Donald Blomqvist, Kari Koivula and Laura Kvist
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:125
  34. Plankton are foundational to marine food webs and an important feature for characterizing ocean health. Recent developments in quantitative imaging devices provide in-flow high-throughput sampling from bulk vo...

    Authors: Liam MacNeil, Sergey Missan, Junliang Luo, Thomas Trappenberg and Julie LaRoche
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:123
  35. In Europe, golden jackals (Canis aureus) have been expanding their range out of the southern and southeastern Balkans towards central Europe continually since the 1960s. Here, we investigated the level of functio...

    Authors: Milomir Stefanović, Duško Ćirović, Neda Bogdanović, Felix Knauer, Miklós Heltai, László Szabó, József Lanszki, Chavdar Dinev Zhelev, Helmut Schaschl and Franz Suchentrunk
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:122
  36. Delimiting cryptic species in elasmobranchs is a major challenge in modern taxonomy due the lack of available phenotypic features. Employing stand-alone genetics in splitting a cryptic species may prove proble...

    Authors: Fahmi, Ian R. Tibbetts, Michael B. Bennett and Christine L. Dudgeon
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:121
  37. How various host–parasite combinations have been established is an important question in evolutionary biology. We have previously described two nematode species, Rhigonema naylae and Travassosinema claudiae, whic...

    Authors: Seiya Nagae, Kazuki Sato, Tsutomu Tanabe and Koichi Hasegawa
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:120
  38. Tracing the association between insect cold tolerance and latitudinally and locally varying environmental conditions, as well as key morphological traits and molecular mechanisms, is essential for understandin...

    Authors: Noora Poikela, Venera Tyukmaeva, Anneli Hoikkala and Maaria Kankare
    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:117

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