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  1. The stem-group of Ephemeroptera is phylogenetically important for understanding key steps in evolutionary history of early pterygote insects. However, these taxa have been mostly studied from the taxonomy poin...

    Authors: Pavel Sroka, Roman J. Godunko, Nina D. Sinitshenkova and Jakub Prokop

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:97

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. The European population of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) is declining. It is therefore essential to optimise conservation initiatives such as the rehabilitation of sick, injured and orphaned hedgehogs. Wild ani...

    Authors: Sophie Lund Rasmussen, Otto Kalliokoski, Torben Dabelsteen and Klas Abelson

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:96

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. Wolbachia is an endosymbiont common to most invertebrates, which can have significant evolutionary implications for its host species by acting as a barrier to gene flow. Despite the importance of Wolbachia, still...

    Authors: Kay Lucek, Selim Bouaouina, Amanda Jospin, Andrea Grill and Jurriaan M. de Vos

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:95

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  4. Despite a longstanding interest in understanding how animals adapt to environments with limited nutrients, we have incomplete knowledge of the genetic basis of metabolic evolution. The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mex...

    Authors: Misty R. Riddle, Ariel Aspiras, Fleur Damen, Suzanne McGaugh, Julius A. Tabin and Clifford J. Tabin

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:94

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  5. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ivalú M. Ávila Herrera, Jiří Král, Markéta Pastuchová, Martin Forman, Jana Musilová, Tereza Kořínková, František Šťáhlavský, Magda Zrzavá, Petr Nguyen, Pavel Just, Charles R. Haddad, Matyáš Hiřman, Martina Koubová, David Sadílek and Bernhard A. Huber

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:93

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:75

  6. Mitochondrial genes encode proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Variations in lifestyle and ecological niche can be directly reflected in metabolic performance. Subterranean rodents represent a good...

    Authors: Olga V. Bondareva, Nadezhda A. Potapova, Kirill A. Konovalov, Tatyana V. Petrova and Natalia I. Abramson

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:92

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  7. The functioning of ecosystems is highly variable through space and time. Climatic and edaphic factors are forcing ecological communities to converge, whereas the diversity of plant assemblages dampens these ef...

    Authors: Guillaume Rheault, Esther Lévesque and Raphaël Proulx

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:91

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  8. Spermatogenesis appears to be a relatively well-conserved process even among distantly related animal taxa such as invertebrates and vertebrates. Although Hymenopterans share many characteristics with other or...

    Authors: Charlotte Lécureuil, Sophie Fouchécourt, Rémi Eliautout, Vanessa Guérin, Kevin Hidalgo, Dorian Neutre, Géraldine Roux and Philippe Monget

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:90

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  9. The speckled-pelage brush-furred rats (Lophuromys flavopunctatus group) have been difficult to define given conflicting genetic, morphological, and distributional records that combine to obscure meaningful accoun...

    Authors: Kenneth Otieno Onditi, Terrence C. Demos, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Zhong-Zheng Chen, Josef Bryja, Leonid A. Lavrenchenko, Simon Musila, Erik Verheyen, Frederik Van de Perre, Benjamin Dudu Akaibe, Noé U. de la Sancha and Xue-Long Jiang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:89

    Content type: Research

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  10. The pace of aging varies considerably in nature. The best-known explanation of the evolution of specific rates of aging is the Williams’ hypothesis suggesting that the aging rate should correlate with the leve...

    Authors: Peter Lenart, Julie Bienertová-Vašků and Luděk Berec

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:87

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  11. Skulls serve many functions and as a result, are subject to many different evolutionary pressures. In squamates, many fossorial species occupy a unique region of skull morphospace, showing convergence across f...

    Authors: Natasha Stepanova and Aaron M. Bauer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:86

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  12. An ecological approach for managing biological invasions in agroecosystems is the selection of alternative crop species to manage the infestation of invasive alien plants through competition. In the current st...

    Authors: Shicai Shen, Gaofeng Xu, Diyu Li, Shaosong Yang, Guimei Jin, Shufang Liu, David Roy Clements, Aidong Chen, Jia Rao, Lila Wen, Qiong Tao, Shuiying Zhang, Jiazhen Yang and Fudou Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:85

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. Plant pathogenesis related-1 (PR-1) proteins belong to the CAP superfamily and have been characterized as markers of induced defense against pathogens. Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri are hemi...

    Authors: Adrielle A. Vasconcelos, Juliana José, Paulo M. Tokimatu, Antonio P. Camargo, Paulo J. P. L. Teixeira, Daniela P. T. Thomazella, Paula F. V. do Prado, Gabriel L. Fiorin, Juliana L. Costa, Antonio Figueira, Marcelo F. Carazzolle, Gonçalo A. G. Pereira and Renata M. Baroni

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:84

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  14. Population size and densities are key parameters in both fundamental and applied ecology, as they affect population resilience to density-dependent processes, habitat changes and stochastic events. Efficient m...

    Authors: Mickaël Jacquier, Jean-Michel Vandel, François Léger, Jeanne Duhayer, Sylvia Pardonnet, Ludovic Say, Sébastien Devillard and Sandrine Ruette

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:82

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  15. Vision is a crucial sense for the evolutionary success of many animal groups. Here we explore the diversity of visual pigments (opsins) in the transcriptomes of amphipods (Crustacea: Amphipoda) and conclude th...

    Authors: Polina Drozdova, Alena Kizenko, Alexandra Saranchina, Anton Gurkov, Maria Firulyova, Ekaterina Govorukhina and Maxim Timofeyev

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:81

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. In holometabolous insects, environmental factors experienced in pre-imaginal life stages affect the life-history traits within that stage and can also influence subsequent life stages. Here, I assessed toleran...

    Authors: Steve B. S. Baleba

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:78

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. In temperate regions many small mammals including bats hibernate during winter. During hibernation these small mammals occasionally wake up (arouse) to restore electrolyte and water balance. However, field dat...

    Authors: Heungjin Ryu, Kodzue Kinoshita, Sungbae Joo and Sun-Sook Kim

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:77

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  18. There has been a rapid increase in the brain size relative to body size during mammalian evolutionary history. In particular, the enlarged and globular brain is the most distinctive anatomical feature of moder...

    Authors: Nashaiman Pervaiz, Hongen Kang, Yiming Bao and Amir Ali Abbasi

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  19. Despite progress in genomic analysis of spiders, their chromosome evolution is not satisfactorily understood. Most information on spider chromosomes concerns the most diversified clade, entelegyne araneomorphs...

    Authors: Ivalú M. Ávila Herrera, Jiří Král, Markéta Pastuchová, Martin Forman, Jana Musilová, Tereza Kořínková, František Šťáhlavský, Magda Zrzavá, Petr Nguyen, Pavel Just, Charles R. Haddad, Matyáš Hiřman, Martina Koubová, David Sadílek and Bernhard A. Huber

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:75

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:93

  20. During recognition process, multiple parameters of the encountered stimulus may play a role. Previous studies with wild birds identified the importance of several salient features (e.g., eyes, beak, prominent ...

    Authors: Kateřina Antonová, Petr Veselý and Roman Fuchs

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:74

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  21. Refaunation/rewilding by large ungulates represents a cost-efficient approach to managing natural biotopes and may be particularly useful for areas whose biodiversity depends on disturbance dynamics and is imp...

    Authors: Martin Konvička, David Ričl, Veronika Vodičková, Jiří Beneš and Miloslav Jirků

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. Although almost all extant spider species live in terrestrial environments, a few species live fully submerged in freshwater or seawater. The intertidal spiders (genus Desis) built silk nests within coral crevice...

    Authors: Fan Li, Yunyun Lv, Zhengyong Wen, Chao Bian, Xinhui Zhang, Shengtao Guo, Qiong Shi and Daiqin Li

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:72

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. Cultivated tea is one of the most important economic and ecological trees distributed worldwide. Cultivated tea suffer from long-term targeted selection of traits and overexploitation of habitats by human bein...

    Authors: Jiao Peng, Yunlin Zhao, Meng Dong, Shiquan Liu, Zhiyuan Hu, Xiaofen Zhong and Zhenggang Xu

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:71

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. The common name of the Flesh flies (Sarcophagidae) usually relates them with organisms feeding on decomposing organic matter, although the biology of one of the largest radiations among insects also includes ...

    Authors: Eliana Buenaventura

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:70

    Content type: Research

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  25. Although the immediate consequences of biological invasions on ecosystems and conservation have been widely studied, the long-term effects remain unclear. Invaders can either cause the extinction of native spe...

    Authors: Carlos García, Josefina G. Campoy and Rubén Retuerto

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:69

    Content type: Research article

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  26. New Zealand’s diplodactylid geckos exhibit high species-level diversity, largely independent of discernible osteological changes. Consequently, systematic affinities of isolated skeletal elements (fossils) are...

    Authors: Lachie Scarsbrook, Emma Sherratt, Rodney A. Hitchmough and Nicolas J. Rawlence

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:67

    Content type: Research

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  27. Color vision and phototactic behavior based on opsins are important for the fitness of insects because of their roles in foraging and mate choice. Related topics, including the duplication and loss of opsin ge...

    Authors: Pengjun Xu, Bin Lu, Jiangtao Chao, Robert Holdbrook, Gemei Liang and Yanhui Lu

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:66

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. The Type I interferon response is an important first-line defense against viruses. In turn, viruses antagonize (i.e., degrade, mis-localize, etc.) many proteins in interferon pathways. Thus, hosts and viruses ...

    Authors: Elena N. Judd, Alison R. Gilchrist, Nicholas R. Meyerson and Sara L. Sawyer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:65

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Geographic differences in floral size sometimes reflect geographic differences in pollinator size. However, we know little about whether this floral size specialization to the regional pollinator size occurred...

    Authors: Tsubasa Toji, Natsumi Ishimoto, Shin Egawa, Yuta Nakase, Mitsuru Hattori and Takao Itino

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:64

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Identifying ecologically significant phenotypic traits and the genomic mechanisms that underly them are crucial steps in understanding traits associated with population divergence. We used genome-wide data to ...

    Authors: Jared A. Grummer, Michael C. Whitlock, Patricia M. Schulte and Eric B. Taylor

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:63

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Pathogens are key components in natural and agricultural plant systems. There is evidence of evolutionary changes in disease susceptibility as a consequence of climate change, but we know little about the unde...

    Authors: Niamh B. O’Hara, Steven J. Franks, Nolan C. Kane, Silas Tittes and Joshua S. Rest

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:61

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Lemurs once rivalled the diversity of rest of the primate order despite thier confinement to the island of Madagascar. We test the adaptive radiation model of Malagasy lemur diversity using a novel combinatio...

    Authors: Ethan L. Fulwood, Shan Shan, Julia M. Winchester, Henry Kirveslahti, Robert Ravier, Shahar Kovalsky, Ingrid Daubechies and Doug M. Boyer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:60

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. The duplication of genes is one of the main genetic mechanisms that led to the gain in complexity of biological tissue. Although the implication of duplicated gene expression in brain evolution was extensively...

    Authors: Solène Brohard-Julien, Vincent Frouin, Vincent Meyer, Smahane Chalabi, Jean-François Deleuze, Edith Le Floch and Christophe Battail

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:59

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Pelvic brooding is a form of uni-parental care, and likely evolved in parallel in two lineages of Sulawesi ricefishes. Contrary to all other ricefishes, females of pelvic brooding species do not deposit eggs a...

    Authors: Tobias Spanke, Leon Hilgers, Benjamin Wipfler, Jana M. Flury, Arne W. Nolte, Ilham V. Utama, Bernhard Misof, Fabian Herder and Julia Schwarzer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:57

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Climate heterogeneity not only indirectly shapes the genetic structures of plant populations, but also drives adaptive divergence by impacting demographic dynamics. The variable localized climates and topograp...

    Authors: Hang Ye, Zhi Wang, Huimin Hou, Jiahui Wu, Yue Gao, Wei Han, Wenming Ru, Genlou Sun and Yiling Wang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:56

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Why females engage in social polygyny remains an unresolved question in species where the resources provided by males maximize female fitness. In these systems, the ability of males to access several females, ...

    Authors: David Canal, Lotte Schlicht, Simone Santoro, Carlos Camacho, Jesús Martínez-Padilla and Jaime Potti

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:55

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Placentation has evolved multiple times among both chordates and invertebrates. Although they are structurally less complex, invertebrate placentae are much more diverse in their origin, development and positi...

    Authors: U. A. Nekliudova, T. F. Schwaha, O. N. Kotenko, D. Gruber, N. Cyran and A. N. Ostrovsky

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:54

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Avidins are biotin-binding proteins commonly found in the vertebrate eggs. In addition to streptavidin from Streptomyces avidinii, a growing number of avidins have been characterized from divergent bacterial spec...

    Authors: Olli H. Laitinen, Tanja P. Kuusela, Sampo Kukkurainen, Anssi Nurminen, Aki Sinkkonen and Vesa P. Hytönen

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:53

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Asexually reproducing populations of single cells evolve through mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Environmental conditions in which the evolution takes place define the emergent fitness landscap...

    Authors: Bhaskar Kumawat and Ramray Bhat

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:52

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. The New Guinean archipelago has been shaped by millions of years of plate tectonic activity combined with long-term fluctuations in climate and sea level. These processes combined with New Guinea’s location at...

    Authors: Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Lloyd T. White, Helena Shaverdo, Athena Lam, Suriani Surbakti, Rawati Panjaitan, Bob Sumoked, Thomas von Rintelen, Katayo Sagata and Michael Balke

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Comparative phylogeographic studies on rainforest species that are widespread in Central Africa often reveal genetic discontinuities within and between biogeographic regions, indicating (historical) barriers t...

    Authors: Samuel Vanden Abeele, Steven B. Janssens, Rosalía Piñeiro and Olivier J. Hardy

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Identifying factors shaping population genetic structure across continuous landscapes in the context of biogeographic boundaries for lineage diversification has been a challenging goal. The red muntjacs cover ...

    Authors: Bhim Singh, Ajit Kumar, Virendra Prasad Uniyal and Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:49

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. A striking aspect of evolution is that it often converges on similar trajectories. Evolutionary convergence can occur in deep time or over short time scales, and is associated with the imposition of similar se...

    Authors: Cory A. Berger, Michael S. Brewer, Nobuaki Kono, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Kazuharu Arakawa, Susan R. Kennedy, Hannah M. Wood, Seira A. Adams and Rosemary G. Gillespie

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:48

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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