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Table 4 Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of Helianthus tuberosus and Ageratina adenophora competition under different shade levels

From: Potential use of Helianthus tuberosus to suppress the invasive alien plant Ageratina adenophora under different shade levels

Variables Different shade rates
60% 40% 20% 0%
July
 H. tuberosus (µmol CO2 m−2 s−1)
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 8.67 ± 0.07d 10.36 ± 0.09c 13.51 ± 0.09b 15.59 ± 0.06a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 8.57 ± 0.10d 10.34 ± 0.11c 13.55 ± 0.11b 15.57 ± 0.10a
 A. adenophora (µmol CO2 m−2 s−1)
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 5.05 ± 0.03d 6.05 ± 0.02c 8.80 ± 0.03b 9.10 ± 0.06a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 5.13 ± 0.07d 6.21 ± 0.06c 8.83 ± 0.08b 9.27 ± 0.07a
August
 H. tuberosus (µmol CO2 m−2 s−1)
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 10.81 ± 0.05d 13.11 ± 0.05c 16.65 ± 0.09b 18.42 ± 0.09a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 10.67 ± 0.07d 13.63 ± 0.06c 16.88 ± 0.05b 18.84 ± 0.06a
 A. adenophora (µmol CO2 m−2 s−1)
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 6.71 ± 0.03d 7.27 ± 0.08c 9.05 ± 0.01b 10.10 ± 0.02a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 7.43 ± 0.04d 9.38 ± 0.04c 11.21 ± 0.04b 13.26 ± 0.07a
September
 H. tuberosus (µmol CO2 m−2 s−1)
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 11.64 ± 0.09d 13.68 ± 0.08c 17.62 ± 0.12b 20.11 ± 0.18a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 12.71 ± 0.05d 15.64 ± 0.07c 19.19 ± 0.13b 21.49 ± 0.12a
 A. adenophora (µmol CO2 m−2 s−1)
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 8.14 ± 0.08d 8.31 ± 0.07c 10.06 ± 0.01b 11.46 ± 0.13a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 8.93 ± 0.03d 10.47 ± 0.06c 13.37 ± 0.07b 15.51 ± 0.17a
October
 H. tuberosus (µmol CO2 m−2 s−1)
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 4:0 11.03 ± 0.03d 12.85 ± 0.08c 15.18 ± 0.07b 18.39 ± 0.06a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 11.70 ± 0.10d 13.68 ± 0.09c 15.80 ± 0.03b 18.53 ± 0.07a
 A. adenophora (µmol CO2 m−2 s−1)
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 1:1 6.52 ± 0.04d 7.55 ± 0.06c 8.88 ± 0.05b 10.46 ± 0.05a
  H. tuberosus: A. adenophora = 0:4 8.24 ± 0.05d 9.64 ± 0.06c 11.99 ± 0.08b 14.26 ± 0.06a
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Different letters within the same row signify significant differences at P < 0.05