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Table 5 Presumed homologies of the cephalic muscles of Chrysopa pallens (Rambur, 1838) with muscles reported in von Kéler (1963) [38] and Miller (1933) [35]

From: Contribution to understanding the evolution of holometaboly: transformation of internal head structures during the metamorphosis in the green lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

Muscle name Abb. Present study Kéler (1963) [38] Mille (1933) [35]
Labrum
 M. frontolabralis 0 lb1 + M8 1
 M. frontoepipharyngalis 0 lb2 + M9 2
 M. labralis transversalis 0 lb4 + 3
Antenna
 M. tentorioscapalis anterior 0an1 + M1 27
 M. tentorioscapalis posterior 0an2 + M2 28
 M. tentorioscapalis lateralis 0an3 M3
 M. tentorioscapalis medialis 0an4 + M4
 M. scapopedicellaris lateralis 0an6 + M5 29
 M. scapopedicellaris medialis 0an7 + M6 30
 M. scapopedicellaris posterior 0an9 + 32
 M. scapopedicellaris anterior 0an10 + 31
Mandible
 M. craniomandibularis internus 0md1 + M11 5–1
 M. craniomandibularis externus posterior 0md3 + M12 4
 M. hypopharyngomandibularis 0md4 + M13 5–2
 M. tentoriomandibularis lateral inferior 0md6 +
 M. tentoriomandibularis medialis inferior 0md8 +
Maxilla
 M. craniocardinalis 0mx1 + M15 6
 M. craniolacinialis 0mx2 + M19 10
 M. tentoriocardinalis 0mx3 + M17 7b
 M. tentoriostipitalis anterior 0mx4 + M18 8
 M. tentoriostipitalis posterior 0mx5 + 9
 M. stipitolacinialis 0mx6 + M20 13
 M. stipitogalealis 0mx7 + M21 14
 M. stipitopalpalis externus 0mx8 + M22 11
 M. stipitopalpalis internus 0mx10 + M23 12
 M. palpopalpalismaxillae primus 0mx12 + M24 15
 M. palpopalpalismaxillae secundus 0mx13 + M25 16
 M. palpopalpalismaxillae tertius 0mx14 + M26 17
 M. palpopalpalismaxillae quartus 0mx15 + M27 18
Labium
 M. tentoriopraementalis 0la5 + M29 23/24
 M. submentopraementalis 0la8 + M28 22
 M. praementopalpalis internus 0la13 + M33 20
 M. praementopalpalis externus 0la14 + M34 19
 M. palpopalpalislabii primus 0la16 + M35 25
 M. palpopalpalislabii secundus 0la17 + M36 26
Epipharynx
 M. clypeopalatalis 0ci1 + M43
 M. clypeobuccalis 0bu1 + M44 38
Hypopharynx
 M. frontooralis 0hy1 + M41a 38
 M. tentoriooralis 0hy2 + M41b 42
 M. tentoriohypopharyngealis 0hy3 + M42 36
 M. praementosalivaris posterior 0hy8 + M39 33
 M. oralis transversalis 0hy9 + M67
 M. hypopharyngosalivaris 0hy12 + M37 34
Pharynx
 M. frontobuccalis anterior 0bu2 + M45 39
 M. frontobuccalis posterior 0bu3 + M46 40
 M. tentoriobuccalis lateralis posterior 0bu4 + M49 43
 M. tentoriobuccalis anterior 0bu5 + M48 44
 M. tentoriobuccalis posterior 0bu6 + M50 45
 M. verticopharyngealis 0 ph 1 + M51 41
 M. tentoriopharyngealis 0 ph 2 + M52 46
  1. “+” = present, “-” = absent