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Table 1 Mean (± 1SE) values for morphological characteristics of G. fortis and G. fuliginosa at rural vs. urban sites.

From: Epigenetic variation between urban and rural populations of Darwin’s finches

  G. fortis G. fuliginosa
Morphological Rural Urban Rural Urban
Character N = 560 N = 245 N = 171 N = 121
Beak depth 11.48 ± 0.06 11.98 ± 0.09** 7.40 ± 0.04 7.42 ± 0.06
Beak width 9.89 ± 0.04 10.24 ± 0.07** 6.8 ± 0.03 6.82 ± 0.04
Beak length 11.71 ± 0.04 12.02 ± 0.07*** 8.56 ± 0.04 8.46 ± 0.09
Tarsus length 21.00 ± 0.06 21.15 ± 0.09 18.83 ± 0.11 18.67 ± 0.09
Wing chord 69.3 ± 0.19 70.4 ± 0.29** 61.26 ± 0.31 61.1 ± 0.30
Body mass 21.23 ± 0.13 22.2 ± 0.23* 13.87 ± 0.15 13.76 ± 0.14
PC1 Body −0.13 ± 0.06 0.29 ± 0.09*** 0.07 ± 0.09 −0.10 ± 0.10
PC1 Beak −0.17 ± 0.07 0.40 ± 0.11*** 0.01 ± 0.09 −0.01 ± 0.15
PC2 Beak −0.01 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.03 0.07 ± 0.04 −0.09 ± 0.10
  1. Statistically significant differences between populations at P < 0.01, 0.001, and <0.0001 are indicated by *, ** and ***, respectively