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  1. Approximately 1000 protein encoding genes common for vertebrates are still unannotated in avian genomes. Are these genes evolutionary lost or are they not yet found for technical reasons? Using genome landscap...

    Authors: R. Huttener, L. Thorrez, T. In’t Veld, M. Granvik, L. Van Lommel, E. Waelkens, R. Derua, K. Lemaire, L. Goyvaerts, S. De Coster, J. Buyse and F. Schuit

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:176

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Ambrosia trifida are globally distributed harmful and invasive weeds. High density clusters play an important role in their invasion. For these two species, the early settled populatio...

    Authors: Wenxuan Zhao, Tong Liu, Yan Liu, Hanyue Wang, Ruili Wang, Qianqian Ma, Hegan Dong and Xuyi Bi

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:175

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  3. Plant communities of fragmented agricultural landscapes, are subject to patch isolation and scale-dependent effects. Variation in configuration, composition, and distance from one another affect biological pro...

    Authors: Michael McLeish, Adrián Peláez, Israel Pagán, Rosario Gavilán, Aurora Fraile and Fernando García-Arenal

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:173

    Content type: Research article

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  4. One of the ecological impacts of exotic plant invasions may be alteration of the soil microbial community, which may cause changes to the diversity, richness and function of these communities. In order to expl...

    Authors: Nardi Torres, Ileana Herrera, Laurie Fajardo and Ramiro O. Bustamante

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:172

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  5. The host specificity and host range of the dry bean beetle, Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae), a seed predator of beans, is poorly known. In addition, the female oviposition preferen...

    Authors: Árpád Szentesi

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:171

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Studying the development of fitness related traits in hybrids from populations diverging in sympatry is a fundamental approach to understand the processes of speciation. However, such traits are often affected...

    Authors: Quentin J.-B. Horta-Lacueva, Sigurður S. Snorrason, Michael B. Morrissey, Camille A.-L. Leblanc and Kalina H. Kapralova

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:170

    Content type: Research

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  7. The dominant Gasterophilus species in the desert steppe (Xinjiang, China) Gasterophilus pecorum poses a serious threat to the reintroduced Przewalski’s horses. We investigated the distribution pattern of G. pecor...

    Authors: Heqing Huang, Ke Zhang, Changliang Shao, Chen Wang, Make Ente, Zhenbiao Wang, Dong Zhang and Kai Li

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:169

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Chinese grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sinensis) is an important species widely distributed throughout China, which is ecologically relevant and possesses ornamental and economic value. These organisms have experienc...

    Authors: Yingying Zhao, Xiaochen Zhu, Ye Jiang, Zhi Li, Xin Li, Weibin Xu, Hua Wei, Yingdong Li and Xiaodong Li

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:167

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  9. Sharks and rays are some of the most threatened marine taxa due to the high levels of bycatch and significant demand for meat and fin-related products in many Asian communities. At least 25% of shark and ray s...

    Authors: Yin Cheong Aden Ip, Jia Jin Marc Chang, Kelvin K. P. Lim, Zeehan Jaafar, Benjamin J. Wainwright and Danwei Huang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:166

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Domestication alters several phenotypic, neurological, and physiological traits in domestic animals compared to those in their wild ancestors. Domestic ducks originated from mallards, and some studies have sho...

    Authors: Tao Zhu, Xin Qi, Yu Chen, Liang Wang, Xueze Lv, Weifang Yang, Jianwei Zhang, Kaiyang Li, Zhonghua Ning, Zhihua Jiang and Lujiang Qu

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:165

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Many male animals donate nutritive materials during courtship or mating to their female mates. Donation of large-sized gifts, though costly to prepare, can result in increased sperm transfer during mating and ...

    Authors: Yoshitaka Kamimura, Kazunori Yoshizawa, Charles Lienhard, Rodrigo L. Ferreira and Jun Abe

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:164

    Content type: Research

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  12. For specialised pollinators, the synchrony of plant and pollinator life history is critical to the persistence of pollinator populations. This is even more critical in nursery pollination, where pollinators ar...

    Authors: Jonathan T. D. Finch, Sally A. Power, Justin A. Welbergen and James M. Cook

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:161

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. The ancestral presence of epithelia in Metazoa is no longer debated. Porifera seem to be one of the best candidates to be the sister group to all other Metazoa. This makes them a key taxon to explore cell-adhe...

    Authors: Amélie Vernale, Maria Mandela Prünster, Fabio Marchianò, Henry Debost, Nicolas Brouilly, Caroline Rocher, Dominique Massey-Harroche, Emmanuelle Renard, André Le Bivic, Bianca H. Habermann and Carole Borchiellini

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:160

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  14. The inaugural BMC Ecology and Evolution image competition attracted entries from talented ecologists and evolutionary biologists worldwide. Together, these photos beautifully capture biodiversity, how it arose an...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Harman, Alison L. Cuff, Josef Settele, Luke M. Jacobus, David A. Liberles and Arne Traulsen

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:157

    Content type: Editorial

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:174

  15. The vast variation observed in genital morphology is a longstanding puzzle in evolutionary biology. Studies showing that the morphology of the mammalian baculum (penis bone) can covary with a male’s paternity ...

    Authors: Lennart Winkler, Anna K. Lindholm, Steven A. Ramm and Andreas Sutter

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research

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  16. Conserved syntenic gene complexes are rare in Arthropods and likely only retained due to functional constraint. Numerous sHSPs have been identified in the genomes of insects, some of which are located clustere...

    Authors: Megan Leask, Mackenzie Lovegrove, Abigail Walker, Elizabeth Duncan and Peter Dearden

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:154

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. Different types of proteins diverge at vastly different rates. Moreover, the same type of protein has been observed to evolve with different rates in different phylogenetic lineages. In the present study we me...

    Authors: Raf Huttener, Lieven Thorrez, Thomas in‘t Veld, Barney Potter, Guy Baele, Mikaela Granvik, Leentje Van Lommel and Frans Schuit

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:153

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  18. In recent years, the average abundance function has attracted much attention as it reflects the degree of cooperation in the population. Then it is significant to analyse how average abundance functions can be...

    Authors: Ke Xia

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:152

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  19. Crypsis by background-matching is a critical form of anti-predator defence for animals exposed to visual predators, but achieving effective camouflage in patchy and variable natural environments is not straigh...

    Authors: Emmanuelle Sophie Briolat, Lina María Arenas, Anna E. Hughes, Eric Liggins and Martin Stevens

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:151

    Content type: Research

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  20. Understanding drivers of animal biodiversity has been a longstanding aim in evolutionary biology. Insects and fishes represent the largest lineages of invertebrates and vertebrates respectively, and consequent...

    Authors: Kevin Arbuckle and Richard J. Harris

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:150

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Environmental conditions on Earth are repeated in non-random patterns that often coincide with species from different regions and time periods having consistent combinations of morphological, physiological and...

    Authors: Nicolás Pelegrin, Kirk O. Winemiller, Laurie J. Vitt, Daniel B. Fitzgerald and Eric R. Pianka

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:149

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  22. hes genes are chordate homologs of Drosophila genes, hairy and enhancer of split, which encode a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional repressor with a WRPW motif. Various developmental functions of hes g...

    Authors: Aya Kuretani, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Masanori Taira and Tatsuo Michiue

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:147

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Malte Petersen, David Armisén, Richard A. Gibbs, Lars Hering, Abderrahman Khila, Georg Mayer, Stephen Richards, Oliver Niehuis and Bernhard Misof

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:146

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Ecology and Evolution 2019 19:11

  24. Climate change models predict changes in the amount, frequency and seasonality of precipitation events, all of which have the potential to affect the structure and function of grassland ecosystems. While previ...

    Authors: Kirk L. Barnett, Scott N. Johnson, Sarah L. Facey, Eleanor V. J. Gibson-Forty, Raul Ochoa-Hueso and Sally A. Power

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:145

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. The earliest Miocene (Aquitanian) represents a crucial time interval in the evolution of European squamates (i.e., lizards and snakes), witnessing a high diversity of taxa, including an array of extinct forms ...

    Authors: Georgios L. Georgalis and Torsten M. Scheyer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:144

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. In species showing partial migration, as is the case for many salmonid fishes, it is important to assess how anthropogenic pressure experienced by migrating individuals affects the total population. We focused...

    Authors: Eloïse Duval, Øystein Skaala, María Quintela, Geir Dahle, Aurélien Delaval, Vidar Wennevik, Kevin A. Glover and Michael M. Hansen

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:143

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are involved in many physiological functions of plant growth and development. Although an increasing number of MATE proteins have been identified, the un...

    Authors: Zhixuan Du, Qitao Su, Zheng Wu, Zhou Huang, Jianzhong Bao, Jianbin Li, Hang Tu, Chuihai Zeng, Junru Fu and Haohua He

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:141

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. When males are selective, they can either reject low-quality females or adjust their reproductive investment in response to traits that indicate female quality (e.g., body size or condition). According to the dif...

    Authors: Diego Solano-Brenes, Luiz Ernesto Costa-Schmidt, Maria Jose Albo and Glauco Machado

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:140

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. The most severe form of human malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This unicellular organism is a member of a subgenus of Plasmodium called the Laverania that infects apes, with P. f...

    Authors: Mackensie R. Gross, Rosie Hsu and Kirk W. Deitsch

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:139

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the main causes of viral hepatitis and liver cancer. HBV integration is one of the key steps in the virus-promoted malignant transformation.

    Authors: Canbiao Wu, Xiaofang Guo, Mengyuan Li, Jingxian Shen, Xiayu Fu, Qingyu Xie, Zeliang Hou, Manman Zhai, Xiaofan Qiu, Zifeng Cui, Hongxian Xie, Pengmin Qin, Xuchu Weng, Zheng Hu and Jiuxing Liang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:138

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Understanding how island ecosystems change across habitats is a major challenge in ecological conservation under the conditions of habitat degradation. According to a 2-year investigation on Dong Island of the...

    Authors: Yingcan Li, Zhiwen Chen, Chao Peng, Guangchuan Huang, Hongyu Niu and Hongmao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:137

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Placodontia is a Triassic sauropterygian reptile group characterized by flat and enlarged crushing teeth adapted to a durophagous diet. The enigmatic placodont Henodus chelyops has numerous autapomorphic characte...

    Authors: Yannick Pommery, Torsten M. Scheyer, James M. Neenan, Tobias Reich, Vincent Fernandez, Dennis F. A. E. Voeten, Adrian S. Losko and Ingmar Werneburg

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:136

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, one of the major causes of worldwide amphibian biodiversity loss. Many amphibians exhibit skin-based chemical defences, which may pl...

    Authors: János Ujszegi, Krisztina Ludányi, Ágnes M. Móricz, Dániel Krüzselyi, László Drahos, Tamás Drexler, Márk Z. Németh, Judit Vörös, Trenton W. J. Garner and Attila Hettyey

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:135

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Four ohnologous genes (sox1, sox2, sox3, and sox15) were generated by two rounds of whole-genome duplication in a vertebrate ancestor. In eutherian mammals, Sox1, Sox2, and Sox3 participate in central nervous sys...

    Authors: Yusaku Ogita, Kei Tamura, Shuuji Mawaribuchi, Nobuhiko Takamatsu and Michihiko Ito

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:134

    Content type: Article

    Published on:

  35. Callitrichids comprise a diverse group of platyrrhine monkeys that are present across South and Central America. Their secondarily evolved small size and pointed claws allow them to cling to vertical trunks of...

    Authors: Léo Botton-Divet and John A. Nyakatura

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:132

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. ApaH like phosphatases (ALPHs) originate from the bacterial ApaH protein and have been identified in all eukaryotic super-groups. Only two of these proteins have been functionally characterised. We have shown ...

    Authors: Paula Andrea Castañeda Londoño, Nicole Banholzer, Bridget Bannermann and Susanne Kramer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:131

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. The orogeny of the eastern Mediterranean region has substantially affected ecological speciation patterns, particularly of mountain-dwelling species. Mountain vipers of the genus Montivipera are among the paramou...

    Authors: Mohsen Ahmadi, Mahmoud-Reza Hemami, Mohammad Kaboli, Masoud Nazarizadeh, Mansoureh Malekian, Roozbeh Behrooz, Philippe Geniez, John Alroy and Niklaus E. Zimmermann

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:130

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Two coexisting species with similar ecological requirements avoid or reduce competition by changing the extent of their use of a given resource. Numerous coexistence mechanisms have been proposed, but species ...

    Authors: Elisa Torretta, Luca Riboldi, Elena Costa, Claudio Delfoco, Erica Frignani and Alberto Meriggi

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:129

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. In the marine realm, dispersal ability is among the major factors shaping the distribution of species. In the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, the Azores Archipelago is home to a multitude of marine invertebrates whi...

    Authors: L. Baptista, H. Meimberg, S. P. Ávila, A. M. Santos and M. Curto

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:128

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. The Chengjiang biota from southwest China (518-million-years old, early Cambrian) has yielded nearly 300 species, of which more than 80 species represent early chelicerates, crustaceans and relatives. The appl...

    Authors: Michel Schmidt, Yu Liu, Xianguang Hou, Joachim T. Haug, Carolin Haug, Huijan Mai and Roland R. Melzer

    Citation: BMC Ecology and Evolution 2021 21:127

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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